In the Name of Allah. God Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
As promised, here is the first of a series that I am sharing with you about the essence of Islamic Jurisprudence or better known as FIQH ISLAM.
To be a proper practicing Muslim, male and female, one has to really learn and understand about Islam in the true sense of the word and know as to why he or she has to know whether what one is doing in action, thought or ideas is permitted or forbidden in the Way of Life that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala has revealed to us Mankind and by the examples set by Allah's Final Messenger to all Children of Adam Alaihis Salam, the Blessed Messenger, Prophet Muhammad ibni Abdullah, Sallalahu Alaihi Wassallam.
Let me start by sharing with you a prayer that is most beneficial to those of us who are starting our lessons in our quest of knowledge in Islam.
"Rabbi zidnii 'ilmann warzuqni fahman"
"O Lord! Increase for me knowledge and give me understanding!"
Now, let me start by sharing with you the 5 'Hukum' or Rulings in Islam.
- WAJIB @ COMPULSORY are acts or deeds which must be carried out. Whomsoever carries out the deeds or actions which are ordered, then the one who has fulfilled the deed as per the stipulations in the Holy Qur'an or the Sunnah of the Blessed Messenger Sallalahu Alaihi Wassallam will be accorded the appropriate blessings and be rewarded in the hereafter. If one fails to carry out the deeds or actions that have been ordered, then one is deemed to have sinned by failing to do or carry out one's duty or obligation/s.
- SUNNAT @ ENJOINED are acts or deeds which are enjoined, which if carried out will be awarded blessings and if not performed or carried out is considered not guilty of sin.
- HARAM @ FORBIDDEN are acts or deeds which are strictly forbidden with the understanding that if carried out makes one sinful and if avoided or abstained from will be awarded blessings.
- MAKRUH @ DISCOURAGED are prohibitions which if carried out are not considered sinful but if abstained from or avoided from are accorded blessings.
- MUBAH are acts or deeds that can be either carried out or refrained from without garnering neither blessings or sins.
- Holy Qur'an
- 'Ijma Mujtahidin @ Scholars Consensus
- 'Qias @ 'Ulamaks opinions based on the prevailing circumstances and situations based upon prior judgments or findings.
The WAJIB laws are permanent, unchangeable and compulsory to be carried out by each and every Muslim and no one is allowed to object or refute them.
Examples of such WAJIB @ Compulsory Standing Orders are as the following matters:
- 5 daily prayers
- Zakat @ Charity
- Saum @ Fasting
- Hajj @ Pilgrimage to Makkah Al Mukarramah
- Trade @ Selling and Buying with Mutual Willingness
Certain Laws or Hukum come about from the consensus of the latter day Ulamaks @ Scholars who base their assertions upon their deliberations and findings of Mujtahid's of the past who were exemplary scholars rich with firm knowledge and empowered to issue fatwa's @ decrees befitting their 'Ilm of Islamic Jurisprudence.
"Ijtihad means to work with all one's might, to strive and to take pains.
In other words, it is to strive to derive the rules to solve problems that have not been explained clearly and openly in the Qur'anic Verses or in the Hadith's by likening them to matters that have been explained clearly and in detail.
This can be done only by our Noble Prophet Muhammad Sallalahu Alaihi Wassallam, by all his Sahabah @ Blessed Companions and, from among other Muslims, by those who have been promoted to the grade of ijtihad; these exalted people are called Mujtahid.
Allahu Ta'ala commands us to perform ijtihad in many places of the Qur'an. Then, it is a binding rule for Mujtahids to perform ijtihad.
These are the great people who can understand the rules of the Shariah and religious matters lying in the depths of the Quranic verses and Hadith's that do not have clearly understandable meanings by using their understanding of the texts and the meaning that can be inferred from such texts.
To be a Mujtahid, it is necessary to know :
- the high branches of Arabic thoroughly,
- to know the Qur'an by heart,
- to know what each ayat means,
- the meanings that it indicates,
- the meanings lying hidden in it,
- the meanings that must be given according to the subject,
- to know when ayats descended,
- why they descended,
- about what instance they descended,
- if they are general or particular,
- if they are nasih or mansuh, (Some Qur'anic Aa'yats @ verses were changed or abrogated by some other Aa'yats that descended later.
If they are conditioned (Some Aayats @ Verses depend on certain conditions, e.g. the ayat "O believers, perform your Solat @ Prayers" is conditioned, because to perform one's Solat @ Prayers, one has to be sane, reached puberty, and has to have taken ablution, etc.
I will try my best to refrain from sharing here too much in depth studies about the FIQH Al-Islami definitions and terminology which would only confound fresh learners about this field.
I consider myself as a perpetual mureed @ forever a student who just loves to add to my limited knowledge of the Oceans of 'Ilm that I know for sure that to my last breath here on Earth, I would have barely scratched the surface of the endless field of Islamic Knowledge.
So, I am going to cut away from trying to explain to you all these unnecessary fields of in depth studies and give you a concise understanding of the subject.
In the time when Prophet Muhammad Sallalahu Alaihi Wassallam was alive, the Blessed Messenger arbitrated over everything.
Rasulullah SAW decided upon any matters that cropped up. He guided his Companions about any issues or situations that needed his ruling or decree.
Rasul Sallalahu Alaihi Wassallam always waited for the Archangel Jibreel Alaihis Salam to come with the relevant revelations of the Holy Qur'an befitting the situations or circumstances.
He would teach the Sahabah's @ Companions the revealed Quranic Aayats @ Verses and ask them to write the verses down or memorize them. Such memorizers are called Haffiz.
The Haffiz were exemplary Muslims who memorized each and every Quranic verse exactly right down to each letter and manner by which they were revealed.
At times when a certain problem or matter was referred to the Holy Prophet Sallalahu Alaihi Wassallam, the Blessed Messenger would be silent, awaiting revelations from Almighty Allah.
Only after receiving such revelations from Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala would the Prophet give his Companions the answer to their questions and ways to solve their problems.
The Prophet Sallalahu Alaihi Wassallam received the Holy Qur'an revelations over a period of 23 years.
I will continue with the rest of the introduction to FIQH ISLAM tomorrow. Insya Allah.
May Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala bless us all with His Taufik and Hidayah. Ameen.